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您听说过霸道和强盗逻辑吗?请看! ——《华尔街日报》公布的美国贸易谈判《条件清单 ...

2019-5-15 11:07| 发布者: 红色记忆| 查看: 779| 评论: 3|原作者: 阿华哥|来自: 微信

摘要: 您听说过霸道和强盗逻辑吗?请看! ——《华尔街日报》公布的美国贸易谈判《条件清单》 美国《华尔街日报》公布的美国贸易谈判《条件清单》(转载) 阿华哥2018年5 月 4 日美国《华尔街日报》公布的 ...

   

                         您听说过霸道和强盗逻辑吗?请看!

        ——《华尔街日报》公布的美国贸易谈判《条件清单》

 

                 美国《华尔街日报》公布的美国贸易谈判《条件清单》(转载)

                 阿华哥

2018年5 月 4 日美国《华尔街日报》公布的美国贸易谈判《条件清单》(转载)

  (中文译文不准确的,以英文原文为准)

    标题Balancing the trade relationship between the united states of Americaand the people’s republic of China(中文:平衡中美之间的贸易关系)

     There is an immediate need for the UnitedStates and China to reduce the U.S. trade deficit with China by ensuring thatChina’s market is open to United States traders and investors on a fair andnon-discriminatory basis.” 。

    需要立即减少美国对中国的贸易赤字,确保中国市场在公平和非歧视的基础上,对美国的出口商和投资者开放。

    第一部分  减少贸易赤字

    China commits to work with Chineseimporters to engage in trade transactions to achieve targets to which theParties agree.

    中国承诺和中国进口商一起促进进口,来满足中美达成的协议。

    These transactions are specificallydesigned to reduce the United States-China trade deficit by $100 billion in thetwelve (12) months beginning June 1, 2018.

     2018 年 6 月 1 日开始的 12 个月以内,中国需要减少 1000 亿美元的对美贸易顺差

    and an additional $100 billion in thetwelve (12) months beginning June 1, 2019, such that the U.S. trade deficitwith China will have decreased compared to 2018 by at least $200 billion by theend of 2020.

     2019 年 6 月 1 日开始,中国继续在 12 个月以内减少第二个 1000 亿美元的对美贸易顺差。

    China’s purchase of U.S. goods willrepresent at least 75% of China’s commitment to a $100 billion increase inpurchases of U.S. exports for the twelve months beginning June 1, 2018, and atleast 50% of China’s commitment to an additional $100 billion increase inpurchases of U.S. exports in the twelve (12) months beginning June 1, 2019.

    中国承诺,从 2018 年 6 月 1 日 -2019 年 5 月 31 日新增进口 1000 亿美元中,至少 75% 是购买美国商品;自 2019 年 6 月 1 日开始的第二个 1000 亿美元,至少 50% 是购买美国商品。

    第二部分:保护美国知识产权

    (a) China immediately will cease providingmarket-distorting subsidies and other types of government support that cancontribute to the creation or maintenance of excess capacity in the industriestargeted by the Made in China 2025 industrial plan;

    (a)中国立即停止对中国制造 2025 扭曲市场的补贴和其他形式的政府支持,因为这样可能会造成这些行业产能过剩。

    (b)by January 1, 2019, China will eliminate specified policies and practices withrespect to technology transfer;

    (b)截至 2019 年 1 月 1 日,中国将消除有关技术转让的特定政策和做法。

    (c) China will take immediate, verifiablesteps to ensure the cessation of Chinese government conducted, Chinesegovernment-sponsored, and Chinese government-tolerated cyber intrusions intoU.S. commercial networks and cyber-enabled theft targeting intellectualproperty, trade secrets and confidential business information held by U.S.companies;

    (c)中国立即采取可验证的手段,确保停止中国政府指挥、赞助和默许的,入侵美国公司商业网络,并通过网络攻击盗取美国公司知识产权、商业机密和贸易机密的行为。

    (d) China will strengthen specifiedintellectual property rights protection and enforcement;

    (d)中国将加强知识产权保护和执法力度

    (e) by January 1, 2019, China willeliminate the provisions of the Regulations on the Administration of the Importand Export of Technologies and the Regulations on the Implementation of the Lawon Chinese-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures identifiedin the U.S. request for WTOconsultations in China – Certain Measures Concerning the Protection ofIntellectual Property Rights (DS542);

    (e)到 2019 年 1 月,中国取消对技术进出口管理的相关规定,同时取消关于执行中外合资企业法中的条款的规定,这些规定美国曾提出在 WTO 和中国磋商,目的是为了保护知识产权。

    (f)by July 1, 2018, China will withdraw its request for WTO consultations inUnited States – Tariff Measures on Certain Goods from China (DS543) and willtake no further action related to this matter under the WTO Understanding onRules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (“DSU”). In addition,China will not take any retaliatory action, whether in the form of tariffs onimports of U.S. products or in any other form, including unwarranted sanitaryand phytosanitary (“SPS”) measures, unwarranted technical barriers to trade(“TBT”) measures, antidumpting and countervailing duties, and discriminatoryinspection, quarantine and testing practices directed at imports of U.S. agriculturalproducts, in response to actions taken or to be taken by the United States,including any new U.S. restrictions on investments or imports. Chinaimmediately will cease all retaliatory actions currently being pursued. Chinaagrees to immediately cease the targeting of American technology andintellectual property through cyber     operations, economic espionage,counterfeiting, and piracy. China also agrees to abide by U.S. export controllaws.

    (f)2018 年 7 月 1 日,中国撤回在 WTO 要求和美国就从中国进口商品征收关税进行磋商的要求,同时中国不再在 WTO 的规定框架和条款下对美方采取更多行动。

    除此之外,对美国新提出的限制进口和限制中国投资措施,中国不能以各种手段对美方进行报复,包括对美方进口商品征收关税,以及对美国进口的农产品采取不必要的卫生和植物检验措施,设置不必要的技术性贸易壁垒,进行反倾销反补贴调查,以及歧视性的检查,检疫和测试等等。中国立即停止现有正在计划中的报复行为,同时中国同意立即停止对美国技术和知识产权的网络窃取、经济间谍、仿制和盗取。

    中国同意遵守美国的出口管制法律。

    第三部分  对敏感技术的投资限制

    In light of China’s prevailing investmentrestrictions and state-directed investment in sensitive U.S. technologysectors, including industrial plans such as Made in China 2025, China confirmsthat it will not oppose, challenge, or otherwise retaliate against the UnitedStates’ imposition of restrictions on investments from China in sensitive U.S.technology sectors or sectors critical to U.S. national security.

    按照中国盛行的投资管制和国家导向的对美国敏感技术的收购,包括中国制造 2025 计划,中国确认不会对美国限制中国投资事关美国国家安全的敏感技术领域的行为进行报复。

    第四部分  美国在中国的投资

    China recognizes that China should notdistort trade through investment restrictions, and that any investmentrestrictions or conditions imposed by China must be narrow and transparent.

    U.S. investors in China must be affordedfair, effective and non-discriminatory market access and treatment, includingremoval of the application of foreign investment restrictions and foreignownership/shareholding requirements. In furtherance of these principles, Chinawill issue an improved nationwide negative list for foreign investment by July1, 2018. Within ninety (90) days of the date on which China issues thisnegative list, the United States will identify existing investment restrictionsthat deny U.S. investors fair, effective and non-discriminatory market access andtreatment. Following receipt of the U.S. list of identified restrictions, Chinais to act expeditiously to remove all identified investment restrictions on atimetable to be decided by the United States and China.

    中国要认识到中国不能通过投资限制来扭曲正常贸易关系,中国任何有关投资的限制和条件都必须限定范围并且实现透明化。

    在中国的美国投资者需要能够拥有公平有效、不被歧视的获得市场准入,包括去除针对外资的各种投资申请限制,外资企业股权比例和所有权要求,中国需要在 2018 年 7 月 1 日发布改进后的全国范围内的负面清单,美国将在 90 天内清查出目前已有的,对美国投资者获取公平有效和非歧视市场准入待遇不利的投资限制条款,中国需要在收到美方提出的这些条款后,根据中美约定的时间表进行清除。

    第五部分  关税和非关税壁垒

    China’s tariffs and non-tariff barriers aresignificantly higher than those of the United States for most tradable goods.China commits to address U.S. concerns relating to tariffs and non-tariffbarriers as follows: (a) by July 1, 2020, China will reduce its tariffs on allproducts in non-critical sectors to levels that are no higher than the levelsof the United States’ corresponding tariffs; and (b) China will removespecified non-tariff barriers. China also recognizes that the United States mayimpose import restrictions and tariffs on products in critical sectors, includingsectors identified in the Made in China 2025 industrial plan.

    中国的关税和非关税壁垒显著的美国同类商品,中国根据美方关切做以下承诺

    (a) 到 2020 年 7 月 1 日,中国把所有非关键领域的产品关税降到和美国同等的水平。

    (b) 中国去除特定的非关税壁垒,中国同时认识到美国可能对关键领域产品实施进口限制和关税壁垒,包括中国制造 2025 年的内容。

    第六部分  美国服务和服务提供商

    Inorder to achieve fair treatment with respect to U.S. services and servicessuppliers, China commits to improve access to its market in specified ways.

    中国承诺对美国服务和服务提供商扩大市场开放

    第七部分 美国农产品

    In order to achieve fair treatment withrespect to U.S. agricultural products, China commits to improve access to itsmarket in specified ways.

    中国承诺对美国农产品扩大市场开放

    第八部分  执行

    China and the United States will meetquarterly to review progress in meeting agreed targets and reforms.

    中美每季度开会讨论协议执行情况。

    In the event that the United Statesconsiders that China fails to comply with any of China’s commitments in thisFramework, including deficit targets, China acknowledges the likelihood thatthe United States will impose additional tariffs or other import restrictionson Chinese products, or on the supply of services or investment, to such extentas the United States deems appropriate. China also understands that it will notoppose, challenge or take any form of action against the United States’imposition of additional tariffs or restrictions pursuant to this paragraph,including action pursuant to the DSU.

    如果美国认为中方没有能够履行框架的承诺,包括赤字目标,中国认可美国将会采取额外的关税或者其他针对中国商品的进口限制措施,或者对中国投资和服务进行限制。

    中国同时不会采取反对、挑战或者其他任何形式的行为反对美国根据本段内容附加的关税和其他限制措施,同时中国不会在 WTO 发起贸易争端申诉。

    China will withdraw its WTO complaintsregarding designations of China as a non-market economy by the United Statesand European Union (United States – Measures Related to Price ComparisonMethodologies (DS515), European Union – Measures Related to Price ComparisonMethodologies (DS516)) and will refrain from challenging the treatment of Chinaas a non-market economy under the DSU in the future.

    中国在 WTO 撤回对欧盟和美国把中国列为非市场国家的申诉

    Additionally, within 15 days of receiving writtennotice of a prohibited product that may have been transshipped through one ormore countries, with or without modification, China will provide full detailsof every such shipment to the suspected destination or destinations. If Chinafails to do so, or the information reveals that transshipping is occuring, theUnited States will impose tariffs equal to the amount of suspectedtransshipments.

    除此之外,如果美方收到中国通过第三国转运禁止进口商品的消息,中国需要在 15 天之内提供转运货物的详细信息包括每艘船的目的地,如果中国没有做到,或者信息显示中国有通过第三国的转运行为,美国将会针对转运货物价值相等的部分征收关税。

    China understands that if it fails touphold any commitment under this Framework for Discussion, it is likely thatthe United States will impose tariffs on imports from China, and, whereappropriate in the case of China’s commitments under subsection (c) of Section2 or the last paragraph in Section 2, U.S. Customs and Border Protection willconfiscate counterfeit and pirated goods or levy tariffs to compensate theUnited States for its lost technologies and intellectual property. Chinacommits to not take any retaliatory action in response to the imposition oftariffs or confiscations by the United States pursuant to this Section

    中国明确知晓如果没有能执行框架协议里的承诺,美国将会进一步征收进口关税。

    如果中国违反了第二条有关知识产权部分的内容,美国海关和边境检察官有权没收假冒伪劣产品或者征收更重关税来弥补美国技术的损失。中国承诺不会采取任何报复行动。

 

    以上内容为用户在观察者网风闻社区上传并发布,仅代表发帖用户观点。

 

 


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引用 云淡 2019-5-16 01:24
讨论:
俄罗斯是一个从前苏联解体出来放弃了社会主义制度的国家,但是美帝国主义者并没有因此对其宽容,而是仍然将其看成主要竞争对手之一,在全世界范围内进行打压。
毛泽东时代之后的中国是一个放弃了毛主席社会主义革命政治路线的国家,但是美帝国主义者并没有因此对其宽容,而是仍然将其看成主要竞争对手之一,在全世界范围内进行打压。
这一件事,深刻地教育了中国的无产阶级和人民大众,激励他们积极投入到反修斗争中。毛主席革命路线回归的动力和社会基础,蕴藏于中国的工农大众之中,蕴藏于中国的普通老百姓之中。
引用 蔺宇 2019-5-15 21:46
(1)中国主动与国际接轨,参与了以美国为主导的国际社会的各项组织,包括WTO,接受了美国主导制定的游戏规则,并作出了签约承诺。既然如此,美国提出的条件原则上并没有超出其框架。(2)中美贸易的不平衡也是事实,一个是美国的逆差问题,一个是两国关税率差问题。(3)我国以市场换技术强迫外国技术转让等涉及知识产权问题的情况也是事实,要不怎么会有高铁等等“厉害了,我的国!”?(4)中国在经济上和技术上对美国的高度依赖性依然存在。美国是中国最重要的进口国和出口国,而且是无可替代的。
无可讳言,贸易战对中国的伤害比美国要大得多,严重得多(我国的各种媒体实际上在尽力掩盖这一点,却一味地放大对美国的伤害),因此阿根廷特习峰会的共识是中国全面接受了美国的主要关切(要求),而美国只做出了延缓对2000亿美元中国货增加关税的期限的承诺。美国从来就没有承诺取消增加关税。刘鹤代表提出了“有尊严的”协议的说法,也可以看出我国在中美经贸磋商中的尴尬处境,几乎就没有太多讨价还价的余地。我国已经承诺并实际实行了许多美国的要求,但是美国还不完全满意。
引用 云淡 2019-5-15 18:33
参考文摘
郭松民: 慕尼黑教训:被对手看破虚弱就是最大失败
2018-11-15   来源:昆仑策网
“张伯伦和达拉第面对希特勒表现出的怯懦,换来的是希特勒的藐视,也成了希特勒大胆发动战争的重要诱因。”http://www.szhgh.com/Article/opinion/xuezhe/2018-11-14/184566.html
讨论1:
特色有虎气也有猴气。虎气在于毛泽东时代的历史惯性:军队毛泽东化。猴气在于自1976年10月以来特色举国上下在行动上“毛泽东思想边缘化”的种种表现(如有“有人仅仅因为携带了毛主席的书就让天安门执勤民警‘如临大敌’”的匪夷所思事件为证,这仅仅是诸多类似事件的冰山一角)。
讨论2:
只有回归毛主席的政治路线,才能确保无产阶级的领导权,引入无产阶级领导下的阶级关系新调度,做好国内自己的事;也才能够在对外谈判中有底气、有能力,运筹帷幄,决胜千里。

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